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Development Program and Rural Livelihood: A Case Study of Two Village Tracts, Shwebo Township, Sagaing Region
- Livelihood is the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of livi ng. The development program in tum shapes the livel ihood assets directl y or through shaping the vulnerabili ty. The development processes are influenced by laws, policies, institutions and culture of a soc iety. The specific objectives of this study are to describe the livelihood of rural cultivators, to analyze contextual factors associated with livelihood of rural cultivators,to analyze the effect of development program for poverty allev iation on rural people and to identify possible remedies for addressing livelihood vulnerability in Obo. Kinbya, Chiba (Xorth) and Chiba (South) villages in Shwebo Township. A community based cross -sectional, case study was done using multiple method approach: qualitative study, Informal Group Interview (IGI), Focus Group Discusssion (FGD). Key Informant Interview (KII), In Depth Interview (IDI) and quantitative survey. Fifteen informants were interviewed for KII and twenty informants for IDI. Altogether 96 lower class households involved in the quantitative survey. In this study, all social classes haw both on-farm and olf-fann livelihood activities. Members of the upper and middle classes in study area have financial resources which arc formal and in formal services but there arc only in formal services in members of the lower class. All social classes need monetary loans in one form or another to have their livelihoods running smooth. Gender role in regard of livelihood goes diff erent according to each soc ial class. In the upper and middle classes most of a community's vu lnerabil ity is due to crop shock, insufficient capital, seasona lity of price, insufficient inputs and weak knowledge of livelihood. Individual -wise, most vulnerabili is caused by human health shock. In the lower cla ss. Community vulnerability is complete lack of support from organiz ations; and individual-wise vulnerability comprises insuffic ient capital, lack of opportunities, human health shock, food security and education. Development program does not secure poverty alleviation because no supports are offered to lower class members. Livelihood opportunities based on natural. Physical, human, financial and social capitals of all social classes should be crea ted.
Shin Thyinn Tun
- University of Yangon